Choices A and C seem to be the same thing - and I think the results reflect that.
I agree with Allen Cole - It all depends on the intentions of the Framework author and the intentions of the end-users. As more Frameworks come out, there will be more variety and more specialized Frameworks, which should make things interesting for theme authors and end-users alike.
None of the above.
Ian, your poll seem to be incomplete - it doesn't mention a set of common template functions that allow to extend, modify or build your own templates. I think you covered it quite well in Thematic, where almost every function could be used or modified. In addition it provides great building blocks that otherwise one would have to write himself. I think the actual functions make it a framework - not theme settings. Frameworks should allow to build your own or extend existing options. Templates on the other hand are only html mockup pages which are pretty much the same across WP themes, but the backbone theme functions is what makes Thematic a framework and other themes - just themes, with some fancy settings (which makes it limited by design) and nothing else.
I don't think any of them qualifies for the name framework. All theme frameworks I know off are just themes except maybe Elastic.
Extra template files is extra template files.
A theme with options and widget areas is just a theme with options and widget areas.
Any framework that wants to call it self a theme framework should be a plugin.
A question to see if its really a theme framework.
If you activate it does the site get an new default design?
Yes? Then its a just theme perhaps with options but a good old theme none the less.
I think a Framework can really be all of these things. It just depends on your development style and what you goal is. Some Frameworks may help with Speed, while others might make things simpler for coding noobs. Depends on how you look at it, I guess. (E) All of the above. Final Answer. :-)